All the factors discussed in connection with interpersonal communication apply to communication in organization as well. However, there are certain features about the latter which special treatment. They are:
- Factors of communication.
- Communication flows.
- Communication networks.
- Informal communication.
Factors influencing organization communication: Four factors influencing the effectiveness of organizational communication. They are :
- Formal channel of communication.
- Authority structure.
- Job specification.
- Information ownership.
Formal channel of communication: A formal channel of communication is a means of communication is a means of communication that is endorsed and probably controlled by managers. Examples include newsletters, memos and reports, and staff meetings.
Formal channels influence effectiveness of communication in two ways. First, the formal channels cover an ever widening distance as organization develop and grow. For example, effective communication is usually far more difficult to achieve in a large multiple conglomerate than in an organization with a single plant. Second, the formal channels of communication can inhibit the free flow of information among organizational levels. An assembly line worker, for example, will often communicate problems to a supervisor rather than to the plant manager.
Authority structure: The organization’s structure has a similar impact on communication effectiveness. Status and power differences in the organization help determine who will comfortably communicate with whom. The content and accuracy of the communication will also be affected by authority differences. For example conversation between a vice chancellor and an assistant clerk may well be characterized by somewhat stained politeness and formality.
Job specification: Specification tends to spate people in organization, as jobs are, by nature spate identifiable collections of activities. Once people are separated, they tend to develop their own interpersonal styles and acquire their own perspective about organization’s goal and means to realize them.
Job specification facilitates communication within different groups. Members of the same work-group are likely to share the same jargon, time horizons, goals, tasks and personal styles. However communication between groups likely to be inhibited.
Information ownership: The term information ownership means that individuals possess unique information and knowledge about their jobs. For example, a dark room employee may be found a particularly efficient way to develop photo prints. A department head may have a particularly effective way of handling conflict among employees, and a salesperson may know who the key decision-makers are in major accounts. Such information is a form of power for the individuals who possess it. With such information they are able to function better than peers. Many individual with skills and knowledge are unwilling to share these with others. As a result, communication within the organization does not take place.