Definition of Job Analysis
Job analysis is the process of collection job related information. Such information helps in the preparation of job description and job specification.
The benefit of job analysis :
- Laying the foundation for human resource planning.
- Laying the foundation for employee hiring.
- Laying the foundation for training and development.
- Laying the foundation for performance appraisal.
- Laying the foundation for salary and wage fixation.
- Laying the foundation for safety and wealth
The two major aspects of job analysis :
Job Description : Job description is prepared on the basis of data collected through job analysis. Job description is a functional description of the contents what the job entails. It is a narration of the contents of a job. It is a description of the activities and duties to be performed in a job, the relationship of the job with other jobs, the equipment and tools involved, the nature of supervision, working conditions and hazards of the job and so on.
All major categories of jobs need to be spelled out in clear and comprehensive manner to determine the qualifications and skills required to perform a job. Thus, job description differentiates one job from the other. In sum, job description is a written statement of what a job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done.
Purposes of Job Description : Job description is done for fulfilling the following purposes
- Grading and classification of jobs.
- Placement and Orientation of new employees.
- Promotions and transfers.
- Outlining for career path.
- Developing work standards.
- Counselling of employees.
- Delimitation of authority.
Job Specification : While job description focuses on the job, job specification focuses on the person i.e, the job holder. Job specification is a statement of the minimum levels of qualifications, skills, physical and other abilities, experience, judgment and attributes required for performing job effectively. In other words, it is a statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications that an incumbent must possess to perform a given job. It sets forth the knowledge, skills and abilities required to do the job effectively. Job specification specifies the physical, psychological, personal, social and behavioral characteristics of the job holders.
Usages of Job Specification :
- Personnel planning.
- Performance appraisal.
- Training and development.
- Job evaluation and compensation.
- Health and safety.
- Employee discipline.
- Work scheduling.
- Career planning.