A Job is a bundle of related tasks. Vetting the CV of a job seeker is a task. A synonym for job is work. Work is understood as physical and mental activity that is carried out at a particular place and time, according to instructions, in return for money. Monetary consideration is crucial in determining whether or not an activity is really a work. If the house-wife herself mops and mows, it is not work, as she is not doing that for money. But , if a servant is appointed and paid money for doing the household chores, it becomes work.
The job incumbent attends to all the allied tasks for wages or salaries. His or her motivation performance, and loyalty depend on how much he or she is paid at the end of a month.
Job or work transcends beyond related tasks and the money they carry. Work has two broad perspectives: sociological and psychological. The psychological perspective looks at the individual behavior, a large body of literature covering the discipline of organizational behavior. More specifically, psychological dimension of work is concerned with managerial problems of learning, attitudes, perception, motivation and job satisfaction. The sociological dimension of work is concerned with the broader contextual and structural factors affecting people’s experience of work. At the core of the sociological perspective are such managerial issues as leadership, communication, power, and polities, division of labor, and group dynamics.
The nature of the work and how managers organize work is a critical element affecting human resource activities.
Job analysis refers to the process of collection information about job. It involves collection of information that should include knowledge, skill and ability (KSA) the incumbent should process to discharge a job effectively. Knowledge may be understood as the extent to which the job holder is familiar with his or her job. Skill refers to the specific capability to operate a machine. This also includes information about the use of tools, equipment and machinery. Abilities refer to the mental capacities needed to perform tasks not requiring the use of tools, equipment or machinery.
In addition to KSA’s other details about the job may include the place where the job is completed and performance standards.
The process of job analysis results in two sets of data:
- Job description
- Job specification
Types of information to be collected by Job Analysis:
- Job oriented activities( description of the work activities performed, expressed in ‘job” terms, usually indicating what is accomplished, such as galvanizing, weaving, cleaning, and so; sometimes such activity descriptions also indicate how, why and when performs an activity; usually the activities are those involving active participation, but in certain instances they may characterize machine or system functions).
- Work activities.
- Procedures used.
- Activity records.
- Personal accountability/responsibility
Worker- Oriented Activities:
- Human behaviors performed in work ( such a sensing, decision making, performing physical actions or communication).
- Elemental motions (such as used in time and motion studies).
- Personal job demands( human expenditures involved in work, such as energy expenditure).
Machines, tools, equipment, and work Aids used:
- Safety equipment.
- Office tools(pone, fax, and books).
Job related Tangibles and Intangibles:
- Materials processed.
- Products made.
- Knowledge dealt with or applied.
- Services rendered.
- Work measurements.
- Work standards.
- Error analysis.
- Other aspects.
- Physical working conditions.
- Work schedule organized context.
- Social context.
- Incentives(financial and non-financial).
- Job-related knowledge and/or skills)such as education, training, or work experience required).
- Personal attributes( such as aptitudes, physical characteristics, personality, interests required).