Purpose of Job Analysis:
As was stated earlier, job analysis is useful for overall management of all personnel activities. While this is a generalized statement, it is important to specify the uses of job analysis.
Job-related data obtained from a job-analysis program are useful in HRP, employee hiring, training, job evaluation, compensation, performance appraisal, computerized personnel information systems, and safety and health. Each of these applications of job analysis is described in brief here.
Human Resource Planning: the number and the type of personnel are determined by the jobs which need to be staffed. Job-related information is, therefore, necessary for HRP.
Recruitment and Selection: Recruitment needs to be proceeded by job analysis. Job analysis helps the HR manager to locate places employees for openings anticipated in future. An understanding of the types of the skills needed and types of job that may open in future, enables managers to have a better continuity and planning in staffing their organization.
Similarly, selection a qualified person to fill a job requires knowing clearly the work to be done and the qualifications needed for someone to perform the work satisfactorily. Without a clear and precise understanding of what a job entails, the HR manager cannot effectively select someone to do the job.
The objective of employee hiring is to match the right people with the right jobs. The objective is too difficult to achieve without having adequate job information.
Training and Development: job analysis is useful for an HRD manager inasmuch as it helps him/her know what a given job demands from the incumbent in terms of knowledge and skills. Training and development programs can be designed depending on the job requirements. Selection of trainees is also facilitated by job analysis.
Job Evaluation: Job evaluation involves determination of relative worth of each job for the purpose of establishing wage and salary differentials. Relative worth is determined mainly on the basis of job description and job specification.
Remuneration: Job evaluation helps determine wage and salary grades for all jobs. Employees need to be compensated depending on the grades of jobs which they occupy. Remuneration also involves fringe benefits, bonus and other benefits. Clearly, remuneration must be based on the relative worth of each of each job. Ignoring this basic principle results in inequitable compensation. A perception of inequity is a sure way of demotivating an employee.
Performance Appraisal: Performance Appraisal involves assessment of the actual performance of an employee against what is expected of him/her. Such assessment is the basis for awarding promotions, effecting transfers, or assessing training needs. Job analysis facilitates performance appraisal inasmuch as it helps fix standards for performance in relation to which performance of an employee is compared and assessed.
Personnel Information: Organizations generally maintain computerized personnel information systems such information system is useful as it helps:
- Improve administrative effectively by spending up the provision of data, by reducing the resources required to carry out routine administration, and by freeing the resources for higher-value activities which are fundamental to the success of the management.
- Provide decision support- information which gives a factual basis for decision concerning the planning, acquisition, development, utilization and remuneration of human resources.
Job analysis is vital for building such information systems.
Safety and Health: The process of conducting a detailed job analysis provides an excellent opportunity to uncover and identify hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors, so that corrective can be taken to minimize and avoid the possibility of human injury.