Characteristic of an Enriched Job:
- Direct Feedback: Employees should be able to get immediate knowledge of the results they are achieving. The evaluation of performance can be built into the job or provide by a supervisor.
- Client Relationship : An employee who serves a client or customer directly has an enriched job. The client be outside the firm ( such as a mechanic dealing with a car owner) or inside (such as a computer operator executive a job for another department).
- New learning : An enriched job allows its incumbent to feel that he is growing intellectually. An assistant who clips relevant newspaper articles for his or her boss is, therefore, doing an enriched job.
- Scheduling own work : Freedom to schedule one’s work contributes to enrichment. Deciding when to tackle which assignment is an example of self-scheduling. Employees who perform creative work have more opportunity to schedule their assignments than those perform routine jobs.
- Unique Experience : An enriched job has some unique or features, such as a quality controller visiting a supplier.
- Control over resources : One approach to job enrichment is for each employee to have control over his or her resources and expenses. For example, he or she must have the authority to order supplies necessary for completing his job.
- Direct communication Authority : An enriched job allows the worker to communicate directly with people who use his or her output, such as quality assurance manager handling a customer’s complaints about quality.
- Personal Accountability : An enriched job holds the incumbent responsible for the results. He or she receives praise for good work and blame for poor work.
Job enrichment seeks to improve both task efficiency and human satisfaction by building into people’s jobs, quite specifically, greater scope for personal achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work, and more opportunity for individual advancement and growth. An enriched job will have more responsibility and autonomy (vertical enrichment), more variety of tasks (horizontal enrichment), and more own opportunities. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self—evaluation. In other words, what the supervisor has been doing till now (planning, instructing, controlling and supervising) will now be done by the worker.
As with other techniques of job design, job enrichment has both positive and negative features. On the plus side, it may be stated that job enrichment benefits employees and organizations in terms of increased motivation, performance, satisfaction, job involvement and reduced absenteeism. Secondly, as fig. shows, the additional features which go into an enriched job shall meet certain psychological needs of job holders. For example, the more the skill variety, identify, and significance a job has, the more meaning, sense of achievement and variety the employee will experience. Similarly, the more autonomy there is in a task, the greater will be the employee’s sense of responsibility, self-control and self-esteem. And the more intrinsic feedback in the task, the more knowledge of results the employee will have. The more the psychological needs of employees are satisfied, greater will be the job outcomes. Thirdly, it may be stated that work is an important part of one’s life. Work-related issues dominate one’s behavior wherever he/she is. Job enrichment, which adds status to one’s job, is naturally a strong motivating and satisfying factor in his/her life. Fourthly, a job enrichment effort helps stimulate improvements in other areas of the organization. Successful changes involving job-enrichment efforts suggest that HR managers can consider both work and workers as variables in developing a more effective organization. This is in sharp contrast to personnel practices of the past where jobs were taken as constraints.
Finally, the concept of empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment. Empowering means passing on authority and responsibility. Empowerment occurs when power goes to employees who, then, experience a sense of ownership and control over their jobs. Job enrichment demands delegation of accountability and hence the need for empowerment.