HRP: Human Resource Planning: Meaning, Definition and Features!
Meaning Human Resource Planning:
Human resource is the most important asset of an organisation. Human resources planning are the important managerial function. It ensures the right type of people, in the right number, at the right time and place, who are trained and motivated to do the right kind of work at the right time, there is generally a shortage of suitable persons.
The enterprise will estimate its manpower requirements and then find out the sources from which the needs will be met. If required manpower is not available then the work will suffer. Developing countries are suffering from the shortage of trained managers. Job opportunities are available in these countries but properly trained personnel are not available. These countries try to import trained skill from other countries.
In order to cope human resource requirements, an enterprise will have to plan in advance its needs and the sources. The terms human resource planning and manpower planning are generally used interchangeably. Human resource planning is not a substitute for manpower planning. Rather the latter is a part of the former i.e., manpower planning is integrated with human resource planning.
Definition Human Resource Planning:
Important definitions of human resource planning are discussed here to understand the concept in right perspective:
According to E.W. Vetter, human resource planning is “the process by which a management determines how an organisation should make from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through planning a management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right places, at the right time to do things which result in both the organisation and the individual receiving the maximum long range benefit.”
Factors Affecting HRP : HRP is influenced by several considerations. The more important of them are :
1. Type and strategy of organization.
2. Organizational growth cycles and planning.
3. Environmental uncertainties.
4. Time horizons.
5. Type and quality forecasting information.
6. Nature of jobs being filled.
7. Off-loading the work.
Type of organization: The type of organization determines the production process and number and type of staff needed. Manufacturing organizations have a more complex structure compared to service organization. It goes without saying that the HRP differs according to the nature of the organization.
Strategy of organization: The human resource needs of an organization depend on the strategic plan adopted by it. For example, growth of the business calls for hiring of additional labour, while mergers will need a plan for layoffs.
Environmental Uncertainties: HR managers rarely have the privilege in a stable and predictable environment. Political, social and economic changes affect all organizations. Personnel planners deal with environmental uncertainties by carefully formulating recruitment , selection, and training and development policies and programmes. Balancing mechanisms are built into the HRM programme through succession planning , promotion channels, layoffs, flextime, job sharing , retirement, VRS and other personnel related arrangements.
Time period: Yet another major factor affecting personnel planning is the horizon. On one hand, there are short-term plans spanning six months to one year. On the other hand, there are long-term plans which spread over three to twenty years. The exact time span, however, depends on the degree of certainty prevailing in an organization’s environment. Plans for companies operating in an unstable environment, computers for example, must be for a short period. Plans for others where environment is fairly stable, for example a university plans, may be long-term. In general , the grater the uncertainty, the shorter the plan’s time horizon and vice versa.
Information: The type and quality of information used in making forecast is an important factor influencing Human Resource Planning. In the absence of a well-developed information mechanism Human Resource Planning is just impossible. Accurate and timely human resource information system helps in getting better quality personnel.
Nature of jobs being filled: Job vacancies are very common and arise due to promotions, retirements, termination of services, growth, expansion, etc. HRP is required to ensure that suitable candidates are recruited.
Off-loading: This implies giving part of the organizations work to outside parties. If an organization prefers off-loading to recruitment of more people. Human Resource Planning is not required.