Who are the Trainees :
Trainees should be selected on the basis of nomination, recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Whatever is the basis, it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. For example, rank-and file employees and their superiors may effectively learn together about a new progress and their respective roles. Bringing several target audience together can also facilitate group processes such as problem solving and decision-making, element useful in quality circle projects.
Who are the Trainers :
Training and development programmes may be conducted by several people, including the following :
- Immediate supervisors.
- Co-worker, as in buddy systems.
- Members of the HR staff.
- Specialist in other parts of the company.
- Outside consultants.
- Industry associations.
- Faculty members at university.
Who among these are selected teach, often depends on where the programme is held and the skill that is being taught. For example, programmes teaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialist in other departments of the company. On the other hand, interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. Large organizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conduct the programmes.
Implementation of the Training and Development :
Once the training programme has been designed , it needs to be implemented. Implementation is beset with certain problems. In the first place, most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. Secondly availability of trainers is a problem. In addition to possessing commutations skills, the trainers must know the company’s philosophy, its objectives, its formal and informal organizations and goals of the training programme. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than perhaps ,any other personnel speciality.
Scheduling training around the around the present work is another problem. There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his other training period. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company.
Programme implementation involves action on the following lines :
- Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.
- Scheduling the training programme.
- Conducting the programme.
- Monitoring the progress of trainees.
How to make Training Effective :
Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practices effective:
- Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. This is what high-performing organizations do. For example, Xerox corporation, in the US invests about $ 300 million annually, or about 2.5 % of its revenue on training. Similarly, Hewlett Packard spends about five percent of its annual revenue to train its 87000 workers.
- Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills.
- Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis.
- Make learning once of the fundamental values of the company. Let the philosophy percolate down to all employees in the company.
- Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs.
- Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness the of training .