Kurt Lewin and Friends: Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. That is, the status quo- whatever is happening right now- it the result of forces pushing in opposing directing. For example,...

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Action research may be described as a process, that is as an ongoing series of events and actions. It may be defined as follows:                 Action Research is the process of systematically collecting research data an ongoing system relative to some objective, goal, or need of that system; feeding these data back into the system; taking actions...

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Organization Development is an effort Planned   Organization - wide and Managed from the top, to   Increase organization effectiveness and health through Planned interventions in the organization’s “process” Using behavioral- science knowledge. Beckhard,1969 Organization development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy inten...

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Classifying OD interventions:  The inventory of OD interventions is quite extensive. We will explore several classification schemes here to help understand how interventions “clump” together in terms of The objectives of the interventions. The targets of the interventions. Becoming familiar with how interventions relate to one another is useful for...

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Creating Learning Organization: Delton has developed a model for creating a learning organization as shown in fig: According to Delton, there are six antecedents that necessitate creation of a learning organization. These are as follows: There is a shift in the relative importance of factors of production, from physical and financial resources to h...

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Line Organization Structure : Line organization structure is also known as scalar, military, or vertical organization and perhaps is the oldest form. This concept holds that in any organization or hierarchy derived from a scalar process, there must be a single head who commands it, although an executive can delegate authority, he has ultimate respo...

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The OD process can be conveniently presented in the form of action research model. OD emphasizes the process of problem solving; and trains the participants to identify and solve problems that are important to them. For this purpose, various steps of OD – problem identification and diagnosis, planning for change, interventions for change, and evalu...

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Organization development, however invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programs have failed. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD  programs vanished over the period of time. In early 60s, OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering hi...

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Features of OD: There are various features of OD which are follows: Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational development. This planned emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change i...

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Administration of welfare involves decisions are Welfare Policy Organization of Welfare Assessment of Effectiveness Welfare policy: The first step in welfare administration is to have a clearly defined towards it. The policy must cover willingness of the management, objectives sought to be achieved, range of facilities to be provided, and the timin...

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