Input : We are given a 2-D maze. The objective is to navigate our way through the maze and travel from the starting position to the specified end point (the goal position). We are supposed to search for a path from the starting position to the goal position till we either find one or exhaust all possibilities. In addition, we are asked to mark the ...

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Catalan numbers are a sequence of natural numbers that occur in various counting problems. This article aims to explain the intuition behind them ; how they are derived and how they come up in seemingly unrelated problems. Consider this "Suppose m = a+b where a=b, votes were cast in an election, with candidate A receiving a votes and candidate B re...

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Lexicographical order basically means dictionary order. A sequence is said to be lexicographically larger than another sequence, if it'll appear later in a dictionary. Eg, the following list is lexicographically sorted - ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA   Now, consider a sequence int a[] = {1,5,3,8,7,5,4,2}; By some trail and error, we can conclude tha...

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This is a very common question where you have to find duplicate word in a given string. Let’s say you have a string This is a String with some duplicate words in it. duplicate words are printed with count by this program. Logic: We will first split the words withe “ ”(blank space) as a delimiter as in a sentence each word is separated by a space, w...

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Given a string, find the longest substring which is palindrome. For example, if the given string is “abacdfgdcaba”, the output should be “aba”. Logic:  One by one consider every character as center point of even and length palindromes For loop. Find the longest even length palindrome with center points as i-1 and i. (First While Loop). Find the lon...

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Here in this post we will find the count of each character in a given String. Lets Say for a given String “tuturself” the output should be the count of each word r=1, s=1, t=2, u=2, e=1, f=1, l=1 Now let us check the code for this: package com.tuturself.programs; import java.util.HashMap; import java.util.Map; public class CharacterCountIn...

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Wikipedia defines powerset as the set of all subsets of S, including the empty set and S itself . Put simply, if the set S is as follows S = {1,2,3,4} Then Its powerset P = { {1},{2},{3},{4},{2,3},{2,4},{3,4},{1,3},{1,4},{1,2},{1,3,4},{1,2,3},{1,2,4},{2,3,4},{1,2,3,4},{empty} } Note that this contains the set itself as well as the empty set. Also n...

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Anagram is a form of word play in which letters of a word are rearranged in such a way that a new word is formed. Consider we have a word rats now by rearranging the characters if we can get another word then the word will be an anagram of rats. Consider the following examples of anagram set: act, cat tab, bat tar, rat star,rats   Algorithm to solv...

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The atoi  function defined in stdlib.h in C converts a String to an int. The declaration of atoi( ) is as following : int atoi(const char *str); Here we are going to write our own atoi() implementation in Java. Remember in Java you convert a string to an integer using the parseInt method of the Java Integer class. The parseInt method converts the...

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Here we need to check if the given number is a Palindrome or not. We just need to reverses the digits of the input number using a loop. Then, if the resulting reversed number is equal to the input number , then it is a Palindrome otherwise not. The following is an example of a Palindrome number. Algorithm: 1. Loop until the input number become 0....

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In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (gcd) of two positive numbers, when at least one of them is not zero, is the largest positive integer that is a divisor of both numbers. For example :  The GCD of 8 and 12 is 4. The GCD of 0 and 7 is 7. Now we need to calculate the GCD of 2 numbers recursively. Consider we have 2 numbers as input m,n. Fin...

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How to swap two numbers without using a third variable is very common interview question. It can be asked in a campus interview or even for a Senior position. This question was first asked to me in my college days. When I was well prepared with all the approaches. But surprisingly again I faced the same question on an interview when I was 5 – 6 yea...

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