There are many theories on what makes a good organization, but the following keys are used to build organizations that accomplish their goals and readily adapt to new challenges. Identifiable Aggregation of Human Beings. Deliberate and Conscious creation. Purposive  creation. Coordination of activities. Structure. Rationality.  

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Management Functions The classical analysis, which is prevalent still today takes various functions which managers at levels of an organization perform in order to achieve organisational objectives. A function is a grouping of similar activities. However what functions are undertaken by mangers in organisations, there is divergence of views because...

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Nature of Management function : Nature of management function can be identified in terms of their being universal, their iterative characteristics, sequential arrangement, and relative importance. Management functions are universal in the sense that a manger has to perform all these functions in the organization irrespective of this level or type o...

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Managerial judgement : This technique is very simple. In this managers sit together, discuses and arrive at a figure which would be the future demand for labour. The technique may involve a “bottom-up” or a “top-down” approach. In the first, line managers submit their department proposals to top managers who arrive at the company forecasts. These f...

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Situational leadership approach was applied, for the first time in 1920 in the armed forces of Germany with the objective to get good generals under different situations. In the business organizations, much emphasis on the leadership researches was placed on the situations that surrounded the exercise of leadership since early 1950s. The prime atte...

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Conflict has been defined as the condition of objective incompatibility between values and goals; as the behavior of deliberately interfering with another’s goal achievement; and as emotionally in terms of hostility. Descriptive theorists have explained conflict behavior in terms of objective conflict of interest, personal styles, reactions to thre...

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Decision making Process for a Manager : When a manager makes a decision, it is in effect the organization’s response to a problem. As such, decisions should be thought of as means rather than ends. Every decisions is the outcome of a dynamic process which is influenced by multiple forces. This process is presented in fig. However, this process shou...

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In designing divisional structure, there are several issues, besides the basis of depersonalization, which should be adequately taken care of. These are determination of number of divisions, provision of corporate staff activities, and relationship between corporate and divisional management. 1. Number of Divisions : Determination of number of divi...

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Divisional structure is suitable to organizations having several products with each product having distinct features, or for organizations having coverage of wide geographical area, or having distinct segments. Dividing the organization into several autonomous divisions allows it may advantages of functional structure. At the same time, it makes av...

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Project Organization Structure: The major reform in the traditional functional structure has come from a group of closely related structures having titles such as project management, program management, systems organization, product management, brand management, and matrix structure. All these have one thing in common that they provide a horizontal...

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Design of Matrix Structure : In matrix organization structure, a project manager Is appointed to coordinate the activities of the project. Personnel are drawn from their respective functional departments for future assignment. Thus, each functional staff has bosses- his administrative head and his project manager. During his assignment to a project...

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Work Stress The changing environment, participation, interaction, transaction, planning and regulation have become key issues, each with its own frustration attached. People feel stress as they can no longer have complete control over what happens in life. There is no escape from stress in modern life. In today’s context “stress is a costly busines...

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Generally stress is considered to the negative, thereby meaning that it has negative consequences. However, stress has neutral connotation; it is only the degree of stress which produces positive or negative consequences. From this point of view, stress can be classified as Eustress or distress. Eustress : Eustress denotes the presence of optimum l...

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Stress Management : High level stress affects the individuals directly and through them, their families and organizations are also affected. Therefore, efforts should be made to overcome the negative consequence of high stress. Figure presents the situation in which individuals need support to overcome stress. Stress management is required when an ...

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Quality of work life (QWL) aims at integrating the socio-psychological needs of people in the organization, the unique requirements of a particular technology, the structure and processes of the organization, and the existing socio-cultural milieu. It is, thus concerned with the overall climate of the work, Nadler and Lawler have defined QWL as fol...

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There are different work design options if we consider two aspects of job-number of tasks in a job and complexity of task. A job containing or Task complexity is the factor associated with the performance of a job. A job is less complex when it can be performed by considering a limited number of factors; a more complex job requires the consideratio...

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Observations shows that: Various individuals perform differently in the same work situations. The same individual performs differently in different work situations. These statements suggest that various factors which affect an individual’s performance broadly two types- individual and situational- and within each type, there may be several factors ...

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Perceptional Process : Perception is a process consisting of several sub processes. We can take an input –throughput output approach to understand the dynamics of the perceptual process. This approach emphasizes that there is input which is processed and gives output. The stimuli in the environment-objects, events, or people-can be considered as th...

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Nature of Organizational Change:  The term change refers to an alteration in a system whether physical, biological, or social. Thus organizational change is the alteration of work environment in organization. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization- technology, structural, arrangement, job design, and people. T...

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The work situation is interpreted by the individual, and attitudes play an important part in which the situation is interpreted. Only after individual’s interpretation and comparison part in which the situation in interpreted. Only after individual’s interpretation and comparison does the response occurs. This mean that response expected of a purel...

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